The use of nanotechnology allows electronics to be faster, smaller, and more portable. It increases the power of electronic devices, improves the density of memory chips, and helps reduce power consumption and the size of transistors used in integrated circuits.
Nanotechnology plays a key role in communication engineering and has a wide array of applications. The use of nanotechnology can affect the telecommunications industry in numerous ways.This paperprovides an insight into some of the latest breakthroughs in nanotechnology that include various devices such as nano transistors, paper batteries, nanorobotics, nanosensors, wireless technology, nano communication, and networks. It also focuses on how the use of this technology is expected to enable the production of smaller, cheaper, and more powerful electronic devices with increasing efficiency.
Nano is an exceedingly small unit of measurement. A nano is equal to one-millionth of a millimeter. It is impossible to see it with the naked eye or some simple magnifier. The nanoscale is used in atomic measurements to determine the sizes of matter particles.
Nanotechnology can also be defined as
A science that studies the possibility of changing matter at the nanoscale to produce new materials or advanced devices to serve human interests in various fields.
The study of very small things and the applications in which they are used.
The study of structures that are in size between 1 to 100 nm.
Nanotechnology is revolutionizing the field of electronics, especially computers, telecommunications, and optics. The main aim in this area is to understand nanoscale rules and mechanisms to implement new ICT (Information and Communication Technology) systems that are more economic, portable, and dependable.
Nano-sized particles of carbon like nanotubes and buckyballs are composed of only carbon and are extraordinarily strong. Bulletproof vests made from carbon nanotubes that weigh the same as a regular t-shirt are a prime example that showcases the strength of nanoparticles. The source of this phenomenal strength is the special characteristics of the bonds between carbon atoms. Nano-sized particles of titanium dioxide and zinc oxide are used in many sunscreens to block UV radiation more effectively.
Nanotechnology may offer new ways of working for electronics. The use of this technology improves display screens on electronic devices while reducing power consumption and the weight and thickness of screens.
Communication systems based on nanotechnology are discovering new materials on the nanometer scale expected to play a vital role in future challenges in the field of communication systems such as
- Devices of ultra-high-speed for long and short-range communications links
- Power-efficient computing devices
- High-density memory and logic and ultra-fast interconnect.
The use of molecules, instead of electromagnetic or sound waves, to encode and transmit information is a whole new mode of communication that requires innovative solutions such as molecular transceivers, channel models, or protocols for nanonetworks to make them work.
Application Areas of Nanotechnology in Displays
There are three broad technological areas for grouping the display technologies; electronic paper, organic LEDs, Field Emission Displays, and other devices that are made for displaying the still images. A role is played by the nanofabrication techniques and nanomaterials in all of them.
Quantum Dot LEDs (QLEDs)
The most promising optoelectronic materials of the next-generation displays are the quantum dots as they have remarkable physical characteristics and are both electroactive (electroluminescent) and photo-active (photoluminescent). There is no doubt they will be at the core of next-generation displays. Lower consumption of power, lower cost of manufacturing, longer lifetime, and purer colors are possessed by the QD-based materials, as compared to the organic luminescent materials that the OLEDs (organic light-emitting diodes) utilize.
Quantum dot display another major benefit is that one can get displays of all kinds of sizes, rollable, flexible, and printable because quantum dot displays can be virtually deposited on any substrate. A passive matrix quantum dot light-emitting diode (QLED) display is displayed by the researchers, for instance, completely integrated with the flexible electronics.
OLETs and OLEDs
OLET gives planar light sources which are capable of being easily integrated into different nature's substrates like paper, plastic, glass, silicon, etc. by utilizing standard microelectronic methods as it is a new and latest light-emission concept. OLETs (Organic light-emitting transistors) are planar, alternative light sources joining the electroluminescent device and thin-films transistor switching mechanism in the same architecture. Therefore, a new era can be opened by the organic light-emitting transistors in organic optoelectronics and they can function as the testbeds for addressing general fundamental photonic and optoelectronic problems.
Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are extremely valuable for various applications in practical life. The phenomenon that light is emitted by some particular organic materials when they are fed with an electric current is what the OLED (organic light-emitting diode) technology is based on. It's utilized already in small electronic device displays on TV screens, digital cameras, MP3 players, and mobile phones. Making organic large-scale solar cells, windows that can be utilized at night time as light source, and extremely power-saving, bright, and ultra-flat OLED televisions are cheaper and more efficient and effective OLED technologies.
An organic compound's thin film makes up the OLED's emissive electroluminescent layer as compared to the regular LEDs. OLEDs don't need a backlight for functioning and thus need less power for operating, all of which make OLEDs extremely attractive. They can be printed on almost all substrates because they are thinner as compared to regular LEDs. Nanoparticles-based coatings and Transparent electrodes are the areas where the nanofabrication methods and nanomaterials are utilized in OLED manufacturing. Nanoparticles-based coatings are used for protecting the OLEDs from damage from the environment by packing the OLEDs (water for instance). OLED fabrication problems can also be solved by nanoparticle-based deposition methods.
A brand new concept of OLEDs with some nanometer of graphene as a transparent conductor has been recently developed by the researchers, which opened the path for OLEDs' cost-effective mass production on a flexible, low-cost, large-area, plastic substrate which is capable of being rolled up like wallpaper and apply virtually to any place you want. OLED brightness and efficiency are still limited by the photon loss and exciton quenching processes
Light is reflected like an ordinary paper by the electronic paper, unlike a conventional flat panel display which illuminates its pixels by utilizing a power-consuming backlight. The electronic paper can indefinitely hold images and texts without drawing any electricity, while later allowing the changing of the image. The prime example of the electronic paper category is electrophoretic displays as they can be made on flexible, thin substrates and have a paper-like appearance. There is already commercial usage of the electrophoretic displays, for instance, mostly the displays are white and black in the Sony Reader or the Kindle. The color displays still have some quality and cost problems. It is shown by the researchers of nanotechnology that enhanced electronic ink fabrication technology is provided by the organic ink nanoparticles, leading to an e-paper with a lower cost of manufacturing, good contrast ratio, and high brightness.
Field Emission Displays
Carbon nanotubes are now being used by researchers for creating a new class of low-cost, high-resolution, large-area flat panel displays. According to some researchers, the biggest challenge to the dominance of an LCD in the panel display arena will be the field emission display (FED) technology, which uses CNT (carbon nanotubes) as an electron emitter. They also believe that FED is the technology for wide-screen, high-definition televisions.
In a sense, FEDs are a hybrid of LCD televisions and CRT televisions. They capitalize on the famous cathode-anode-phosphor technology made into the full-sized CRTs by utilizing this with the LCDs' dot-matrix cellular construction. Cold cathodes individually control the electron emitters, organized in a grid for generating the colored light (whereas the field emission doesn't depend on the cathode's heating for boiling off the electrons. The thin panel of the LCDs (liquid crystal displays) today makes the field emission display technology possible, providing a broader field-of-view, giving the CRT (cathode ray tube) displays of today a high image quality, and needing less power as compared to the CRT displays of today.
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Application Areas of Nanotechnology in Communication
ICT (information and communication technology) indicates innovative and advanced technologies that permit information through telecommunications. Information and communication technology is a fast-growing and significant industrial sector with a high innovation rate. ICT covers any product capable of storing, manipulating, receiving, or transmitting the information in the digital form electronically.
Nanotechnology is an industrial revolution when it comes to the telecommunications industry. It resulted in various changes in the computing, networking, and telecommunications industries. A major role is played by nanotechnology in communication engineering. It has a broad number of applications. There are various ways in which it can influence the telecommunications industry. Various aspects of communication and information technologies and their characteristics can be revolutionized by nanotechnology.
Nanotechnology has a significant function in telecommunications engineering and it can give effective solutions to control the physical world with computers and for sensing, power-efficient computing, memory improvement programs, and human-machine interaction. One needs an effective way of communication when he wishes to interact with other human environments like public places, offices, and homes. Better sensing and computing resources and an intelligent communication way are provided by electronic devices with a high degree of communication and computation technologies.
Nanotechnology has a huge amount of applications as it makes various electronic devices and new materials. Nanotechnology can make sensors and computer chips that are considerably cheaper, faster, more energy-efficient, and smaller as compared to their current counterparts. A significant role is played by nanotechnology in the telecommunication engineering field, making a great revolution in various aspects dealing with communication features and technologies. A broad amount of applications are possessed by nanotechnology and they have influenced the industry of telecommunications in various ways.
The traditional telecommunication enterprise will eventually be replaced by one based completely upon the use of nanotechnology. Nanotechnology enhances the operation of both cellular as well as core networks, and by providing additional protection and security mechanisms, the better effect on the sensor makes this technology stand out from previous traditional technologies.
In the age of the Internet of Things, all smart devices bolster some degree of wireless communication. From smart home systems to TV receivers, and satellites to smartphones, the demand for wireless communication is immense and it's only going to grow. The tech industry is intelligently using all available resources to make all wireless computation and communication activities seamless. Once nanotechnology has undergone enough development to allow its mass production for use in mobile devices, we will see another surge in the integration of these devices in our everyday lives.
Newly developed nanodevices may be designed to achieve increased capabilities such as
- sensible to the environment
- smart interaction with other systems.
Graphene-based IC especially developed for wireless communications in cellphones can be used for a wide range of applications. At present-day conventional frequencies, transceiver and cell phone signals can be improved enabling phones to work where they cannot. At higher frequencies, medical and military personnel can view hidden weapons and perform medical imaging without the radiation exposure dangers of X-rays.
Nano Communication and Networks
Nano communications are the area of research for finding efficient means of communication for future nanodevices. (“Nano-scale and Quantum Communication Networks”) These devices are planned to have a wide range of application areas. A nanomachine is described as a mechanical device that relies on nanometer-scale parts.
The term nuclear machine is known for a mechanical device that plays out an accommodating limit using fragments of nanometer-scale and a subnuclear structure, conveying, processing, information, detecting, or potentially activating other systems.
Nano communications are divided into two main streams
- EM nano communications
- Molecular nano communications
EM-based nano communication uses electromagnetic waves as information carriers similar to classical methods. This method cannot be directly applied to nanodomain due to the extreme scarcity of resources and techniques that need to be utilized. CNTs are the most famous and promising material for nano communications. Molecular communication is the natural communication technique used by living organisms and is envisioned to become an available method for future nanodevices. The concentration of the molecule in proximity to the receiver may be used to understand the molecular bit sent by the transmitter.
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Some other Nanotechnology Applications
Nanotechnology is utilized in all scientific areas including engineering, materials science, biology, physics, and chemistry. Nanochemists are now working in product synthesis, polymer chemistry, medical organic chemistry, and other fields. They depend on different and a lot of options to prepare and make nanomaterials with the chemical, photochemical, magnetic, and electronic characteristics. One can interpret and explain their mechanical system within the nanoscale i.e. the infinitesimal space. They are the chips that are utilized in manufacturing all electrical and electronic devices like CPUs, and computers for instance.
Nanotechnology is utilized in various polymeric nanofilms like organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), and electronic devices like digital cameras, television, mobile phones, computers, and laptops. Many industrial and technological sectors are being enhanced and revolutionized with the help of nanotechnology. Clear nanoscale films on the windows, camera displays, computer displays, eyeglasses, and other surfaces can turn them electrically conductive, scratch-resistant, antimicrobial, anti fog, resistant towards infrared or ultraviolet light, self-cleaning, anti reflective, and residue- and water-repellent.
The implementation of nanotechnologies in the biological fields is nanobiotechnology. Nanotechnology is viewed by biologists, physicists, and chemists as a branch of their collaborations and subject. One result of nanotechnology's hybrid field is that it utilizes biological design principles, biological starting materials, or possesses medical or biological applications. Nanotechnology can have a very important role in the development and implementation of various useful tools in the study of life whereas biotechnology deals with the metabolic and other physiological processes of the biological subjects, for instance, microorganisms. Nanomaterials' integration with biology has resulted in developing drug-delivery vehicles, therapy, analytical tools, contrast agents, and diagnostic devices.
Nanotechnology in Electronics (Nanoelectronics)
Nanotechnology is like a toolkit for the electronics industry, and it gives us tools that allow us to make nanomaterials with special properties modified by ultra-fine particle size and crystalline structure. Nanoelectronics can be described as the application of nanotechnology in electronic devices, especially transistors. Although the term nanotechnology means using technology less than 100 nanometers in size, nanoelectronics can also refer to very small transistors. Nanoelectronics can improve display screens on electronic devices and revolutionize the industry enabling developers to overcome traditional technological constraints that limit product weight, power consumption, and size.
Nanosensor is a sensing device. Its one dimension is smaller than 100 nm and it aims to collect information on the nanoscale and transfer it into the data for further analysis. There has been the development of nanosensors to detect physical, gasses, biochemical, and chemical variables and detect electromagnetic radiation.
Nanotechnology in Cosmetics
One can find nanomaterials and nanotechnology applications in various cosmetic products like sunscreen, make-up, hair care products, and moisturizers.
Agriculture and Food
Nanotechnology will have potential applications in the functional food area by engineering biological molecules toward the functions that are way different from those that one finds in nature which paves way for a completely new area of development and research. Nanotechnology will give food technologists a completely new toolset for going to new heights.
Nanotechnology in Space
A significant role will be played by nanotechnology in space missions in the future. Some of the examples are nanosensors with considerably enhanced high-performance materials or highly efficient propulsion systems.
Nanotechnology in Automotive Industry
The major consumer of material technologies is the automotive sector. Nanotechnology promises to significantly enhance the existing technologies' performance. There are a lot of applications from the wear-resistant tires, batteries, fuel cells, and paint quality to the futuristic completely self-repairing paint, shape-shifting skin, and switchable colors.
Nanotechnology in the Cement Industry
Excellent or remarkable characteristics are possessed by the cement-based materials that undergo nanoengineering. Nanotechnology's orientation in the cement industry has the light of addressing some of the complications like low ductility, high water absorption, low tensile strength, long curing time, poor crack resistance, CO2 emissions, and various other mechanical performances.
Nanomedicine is employing molecular machine systems for diagnosing medical problems. It maintains and enhances human health at the molecular scale by using molecular knowledge. Nanomedicine is the technology and science to prevent, diagnose, and treat traumatic injury and disease, of reducing pain, and of enhancing and preserving human health by utilizing the human body's molecular knowledge and molecular tools. It is the usage of engineered nanostructures and nanodevices to comprehensively enhance, defend, repair, construct, monitor, and control all of the human biological systems.
Nanotechnology and the Environment
There have been significant contributions of nanotechnological applications, processes, and products to protect the climate and the environment by saving and preserving water, energy, and raw materials along with the reduction of hazardous wastes and greenhouse gasses. Particular sustainability effects and environmental benefits are promised by utilizing the nanomaterials.
Nanotechnology in Sports Equipment: The game-changer
A huge amount of benefits and significant improvement in sporting equipment is offered by nanotechnology, making athletes more agile, comfortable, and safer than ever. Nanotechnology has helped improve the performance of a lot of the sporting equipment, for instance, archery arrows, fly-fishing rods, skis, golf clubs/balls, racing bicycles, hockey sticks, badminton racquets, tennis racquets, baseball bats, etc.
Nanotechnology can be used in various ways in communication engineering and electronics. Sensors, computer chips, actuators, supercapacitors (SC), carbon nanotubes (CNT), and silicon nanowires, are included in the examples. Display technologies are grouped into three broad technological areas and a role is performed by the nanomaterials and nanofabrication methods in all of them. The size of the transistors utilized in the integrated circuits is reduced by nanotechnology for enhancing the capabilities of the electronic components. Sensor networks and wireless sensors have applications in environment monitoring, health, security systems, and logistics.
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