Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) Nanoparticles
Indium tin oxide nanoparticles are crystalline nanomaterials with a wide bandgap that exhibit high transmission in the near infra-red and visible region. In addition, indium oxide nanoparticles are n-type semiconductors with low electrical resistance. Regarding these properties, indium tin oxide nanoparticles have found a broad range of optical and electrical applications. What’s more, ITO nanoparticles have been getting increasing demand in the thin film fabrication with applications in electronic devices manufacturing. They are mainly applied as thin film transistors, transparent conductive coatings in electronic displays and heat-reflecting coatings for the glass used in vehicles, light bulbs and buildings glass. There are several methods to synthesize indium tin oxide nanoparticles that comprise highly dense plasma assisted electron beam evaporation, d.c. magnetron sputtering and sol–gel method. Reactions based on the solvothermal method of nanoparticle synthesis have been employed to obtain colloidal indium oxide quantum dots. In the co-precipitation method, inorganic indium salts as inexpensive salts are used to synthesize ITO nanoparticles in a two-step process.