Lithium Battery Materials
The Li battery consists in particular of a metallic lithium anode and a sulfur cathode. The main advantage of this battery is the replacement of the mixed oxide of the cathode by sulfur, lighter, more abundant, and therefore inexpensive. Materials that are used in lithium batteries cathode include lithium-metal oxides [such as Li(NixMnyCoz)O2, LiMn2O4, and LiCoO2], olivines (such as LiFePO4), vanadium oxides and rechargeable lithium oxides. The materials that are used in anodes include lithium-alloying materials, graphite, silicon, or intermetallics. Graphite carbon is a form of carbon with a laminated structure. The space between the cathode and the anode is filled with an electrolyte, which is a substance allowing the lithium ions that are carrying the charge of the battery to pass freely from the cathode to the anode. The electrolytes of lithium batteries are polymer, liquid, or solid-state electrolytes. If the electrolyte is a liquid, then a foam separator is used between two electrodes to avoid a short circuit.