Coin Cell Materials
A majority of lithium batteries that are used are coin/button cell form. These batteries are small in size and they are shaped like small discs. These batteries are very light, inexpensive, and have a long shelf-life. Most coin cell batteries are non-rechargeable (disposable). Their anode is generally composed of zinc or lithium and their cathode is made up of manganese dioxide, silver oxide, carbon monofluoride, copper oxide, or dioxygen drawn from the air. Mercury oxide was also used in the production of coin cell batteries, but it has been discontinued due to its toxic nature and negative impact on the environment. Lithium coin cell batteries with the positive electrode of manganese dioxide have an organic electrolyte. These batteries have a nominal voltage (V) of 3 and the end-point voltage is 2. Coin cell batteries are highly useful in small devices like wristwatches, hearing aids, and backup power of personal computer real-time clocks, etc.